Green manure fertilizers
Which gardeners are not familiar with this phenomenon: if you grow the same crop, for example, potato, for many years in a row on a plot, especially without fertilizing, then the yield decreases over the years. But not only that. Soil structure is gradually destroyed and its fertility is reduced. Monoculture also enhances the reproduction of pests and the spread of diseases.
The harmful effects of monoculture can be reduced by occasionally growing green plants called green fertilizers.
Most often, annual and perennial leguminous plants are grown as siderates.. The high-protein bean mass planted in the soil enriches the arable layer with organic matter and nitrogen. It is known that in its fertilizing effect it is almost equivalent to the introduction of fresh manure. Even stubble and root residues enrich the soil with organic matter and nitrogen.
The high nitrogen content in the legume plant mass is explained by the multiplication of nitrogen-fixing bacteria on their roots, which form swellings - nodules. By assimilating atmospheric nitrogen, bacteria transfer it to a state accessible to plants. Legumes are called a plant protein plant because they provide valuable high-protein feed for farm animals..
Once in the soil and gradually decomposing, the nutrients contained in the vegetable mass of siderates turn into an accessible state for subsequent crops, and organic matter helps to restore the soil structure.
As siderates, you can use not only legumes, but also, for example, honey plants - phacelia, buckwheat, sunflower. The effectiveness of honey plants as siderates, however, is lower, but they, in addition to the accumulation of organic matter in the soil, also serve as the feed base of bees.
Depending on the degree of soil depletion, green manure can occupy the site all summer or any period.
If the garden has been under monoculture for a long time, then it is better to free it from vegetable plants for the whole year, and to sow annual legumes in autumn or early spring. In the south, in the autumn, wintering peas (dipper) and winter vetch are sown, and in early spring, spring peas, spring vetch, and rank. In early spring, spring peas, spring vetch, fodder beans, lupins, and seradella are sown in the middle lane. As soon as the beans begin to appear, the green mass is rolled in a roller and plowed into the soil to a depth of at least 12-15 cm. After this, the site is leveled and kept clean from weeds and friable until the fall. In a humid environment, the plant mass decomposes faster, so the soil should be moistened in a drought.
In all areas, vegetable peas can be planted as siderates in spring. After harvesting the beans in canning ripeness, the leaf-stem mass is rolled and plowed.
Siderata is also grown in intermediate crops, placing them between two vegetable crops. In the autumn, after harvesting vegetables, winter peas or winter vetch are sown. In the spring after flowering, the mass is rolled up and scented, and the area is leveled and occupied by an early ripe vegetable crop. Intermediate siderates can be grown in the second crop after harvesting early vegetables, which allows more intensive use of the land.
In the garden areas, green manure is sown in a continuous, ordinary way with a 15-row spacing and seed rate adopted in the zone.
© Sten Porse
In the garden, in addition to restoring the structure and increasing soil fertility, green manure suppresses weeds and protects the soil from wind and water erosion, but this requires optimal moisture or irrigation. The lack of moisture worsens the conditions for the growth and development of trees, reduces the yield of fruits.
In a young garden, annual legumes are sown - wintering peas, winter vetch, spring peas, ranch, lupine, fodder beans, seradella, rolling and smelling the green mass during the formation of beans. In the old - perennial herbs: sowing alfalfa, red clover, sainfoin, clover. Alfalfa in the garden is kept in a row for 3-5 years, clover for 2-3 years, sainfoin and clover for 2 years. Perennial grasses are mowed to feed at the beginning of flowering and immediately taken out.
Siderata in the garden is sown in stripes in the rows between rows in a continuous row method (with row spacing of 15 cm), the seeding rate is accepted in the zone. Trunk circles are left free, weeding and loosening them. Row spacing is not carried out. Open grass in the fall in the last year of their maintenance.
After plowing green manure in the garden for 2-3 years, the soil is left under black steam or used for vegetable crops, and then the green manure is repeated.
Legumes are demanding on moisturizing conditions. Therefore, they must be grown with good natural moisture or irrigation. Do I need to apply mineral fertilizers for siderata? Yes it is. Improving the growth and development of legumes, they increase the yield of green mass. Under plowing make full mineral fertilizer - 0.6 kg of nitrogen and potassium and 0.9 kg of phosphorus per 100 m2.
© H. Zell
Sowing continuous ordinary with aisles of 15 cm. In small areas, the seeds are simply scattered. The seeds of annual legumes are planted in the soil by 5-6 cm, perennial seeds by 3-4 cm. Post-sowing rolling is mandatory, especially when sowing perennial grasses.
Siderata usually do not require care, but they grow better when watering.
- V. Zubenko, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences